Positive: A positive blood sample confirms active infection, usually clinical. Appropriate treatment should be started. Previous infection will not provide protection against future exposure.
Low Level Positive: These results also confirm infection, but at a lower level. Most often, these animals are not clinical, but may quickly present signs of illness, or continue remaining sub-clinical for extended periods of time.
Negative: Negative blood does not rule out sub-clinical infection. Sub-clinical animals are frequently blood negative, swab positive. Combined choanal/cloacal swabs should be submitted to ensure negative results.
Swab Sample — Combined choanal/cloacal swab
Positive: A positive combined swab will confirm infection, although the animal may or may not be clinical at the time the swab was taken.
Low Level Positive: A confirmed infection, but at lower levels than normally associated with clinical disease. This may also reflect a contamination for the environment. LLP results are very useful to determine clean-up efforts.
Negative: A negative swab confirms no organism is present at the time of testing.
Specimen of Choice: Blood and choanal/cloacal swab
Submitted together, they will be tested and charged as one test.
Swabs from liver and other organs provide the best samples. These swabs are excessively "hot," confirming disease.
Thorough swabbing of environment is necessary for accurate results (cage corners, a/c vents, and other areas not easily or recently cleaned). When determining clean-up efforts, swabs should be tested individually to confirm success in various locations.